What’s So Odd About a Young Moon in Late Fall?

November 20th, 2017, 5:10 p.m. local time

A bitter, windy chill was in the air tonight, with calm and clear heavens in strong deference.  The young crescent Moon made its Monthly debut in the West.  Few will notice before it sets.

The Moon has now passed by the Sun three times in the sky since the Great North American Eclipse of 2017.  Summer turned to Fall.  Fall is rapidly giving way to Winter.  The wonderful sites of the cosmos are available on nights like these for those who wish to seize the opportunity.  But don’t wait too long, for the Sun and Moon and stars wait for no one as their eternal journey carries on.

Most trees framing this evening’s Moon have already started their annual hibernation.  But amazingly, here in the Midwest in late November, many trees are stubbornly holding onto their leaves, though they usually would have been shed weeks ago by now.  Notice the one tree in the background still full as if in mid September.  I do not know what’s up with the trees this year, but they do need to hurry up if they don’t want to miss Winter.

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Halloween Moon

October 31st, 2017, 9:00 p.m. local time

Ghostly clouds and autumn leaves bring you tonight’s Moon on this last day of October.

The Moon and a Plane

October 25th, 2017, 6:01 p.m. local time

Sometimes the quickest astrophotography snaps yield surprises.  I was not even trying to include the plane, honest!

Moon Falling in Daylight

October 9th, 2017, 9:45 a.m. local time

On Monday, the Moon was still out well into the morning, but setting towards the horizon in a clear, blue, and near-empty sky.  These early Waning phase days are a reminder that astrophotography can be done all day and all night.  Granted, your targets during the day will be three at most (Sun, Moon, Venus), but the pursuit is nonetheless possible.

Constellations IV: Scorpius Rising

Click for larger image.

From my vault of unpublished astrophotography, today I bring you a rendition from earlier this year of the constellation Scorpius.  I had been meaning to process this one for a while.  Days turned into weeks which turned into months.  An eclipse got in the way somewhere along the journey.  So here we are, mid-October, discussing a constellation normally thought of in the Summer.

I recall that it was still very early evening when I took the photographs which comprise this stacked image.  As you can see, my view was a tad narrow, but you can easily make out the side of Scorpius anchored by Antares.  To the top-left are two moderately bright stars, part of the constellation Ophiuchus.  If you imagine a horizontal line from the bottom of those stars in Ophiuchus to the top stars in Scorpius, then you are envisioning the Sun’s elliptic path in the sky.

When is the Moon fully Full?

Taken with Canon EOS Rebel. f/5.6, 1/500 sec., 100 ISO, 300mm focal length.

October 4th, 2017, 9:30 p.m. local time

Last night was “Full Moon night.”  The Moon passed from its prior Waxing phase and is now in its Waning phase, were it shall remain until the next New Moon.

When is the Moon truly full?  If you look at my image above from last night, taken with my digital camera, you may believe this is a Full Moon.  But it is more likely a 99-99.9% Waxing Gibbous.  How can you tell?  Notice on the right side how there is a thin circular line along the circumference of the Moon’s edge.  This indicates the direction of the Sun relative to the Moon as seen from my location on Earth.  Now look at the left side and note the absence of that circular line.  Instead, on the left you still see the shadows of craters at the extreme edge of our viewing range.

At some point last night, yes the Moon went fully Full and the line traced a complete circle.  That is your real Full Moon.  Tonight, that circular line will now be on the left side with crater shadows visible on the right.

Someday I hope to capture a true Full Moon.  Its appearance is relative every Moon cycle, so instead of relying on luck, whenever I have more time I will look up the exact UTC time and be ready to photograph at that moment.

Thirty Theses on Light Pollution, 2017

(I) Light Pollution is pollution.

(II) Light Pollution is among the least-understood and least-recognized forms of pollution.

(III) Most people do not know what Light Pollution is.

(IV) Light Pollution distorts the Earth’s natural night sky.

(V) Light Pollution’s distortion on the Earth’s night sky, by extension, distorts the Earth’s natural environments.

(VI) Science has accumulated sparse evidence of the environmental impacts of Light Pollution.

(VII) The accumulated scientific evidence to-date is insufficient to awaken the general population to the existence of Light Pollution and its impact on Earth’s environments.

(VIII) Light Pollution is a recent phenomenon in human history.

(IX) Light Pollution is artificial.

(X) Moonlight is not Light Pollution, but part of the Earth’s natural environment that evolved over billions of years.

(XI) Humans and most non-nocturnal animals have difficulty sleeping under artificial light, preferring the dark of night.

(XII) Light Pollution directly inhibits terrestrial stargazing and other astronomical pursuits.

(XIII) Light Pollution lessens children’s curiosity about the night sky, stunting their desire to learn and imagine.

(XIV) Light Pollution severs mankind’s prime connection for wondering about the cosmos.

(XV) The intended direction of nearly all artificial night lighting is down.

(XVI) Most artificial light illuminates in all directions (down, up, sides).

(XVII) Artificial light that illuminates outside of its intended range wastes energy.

(XVIII) Artificial light that illuminates outside of its intended range may be an encroachment onto surrounding lands and properties.

(XIX) Light Pollution is caused by artificial illumination of the night sky.

(XX) Light Pollution will never be eliminated completely from civilized locations, but it can be greatly mitigated.

(XXI) Light Pollution can be reduced with no impact to quality of life and security.

(XXII) Light Pollution can be significantly reduced by shielding all outdoor lighting to focus illumination on the intended ground target.

(XXIII) Shielded lights make nighttime visibility easier by reducing harsh bulb glare.

(XXIV) Light Pollution can be significantly reduced through the use of timers and motion sensors.

(XXV) All commercial and home decorative lighting should point downward with bulbs or diodes shielded on their sides.

(XXVI) Most Light Pollution comes from street lights.

(XXVII) Newer LED lights contribute far more to Light Pollution than the older, traditional sodium streetlamps.  This is because newer LED diodes blast light across almost the entire visible light spectrum, whereas the older sodium lamps emitted light at a very narrow yellow band within the visible spectrum.

(XXVIII) Newer LED lights are OK for outdoors but should be low-intensity, shielded, and ideally triggered by motion sensors.

(XXIX) Blue light is the worst light for outdoors because the Earth’s atmosphere absorbs blue spectrum light the easiest.  Think of the daytime blue sky!

(XXX) Images from space of the Earth’s ground illuminated at night were once evidence of progress, but now should be viewed as evidence of our collective ignorance about Light Pollution and not understanding how to lessen its impacts on the Earth’s environments.

I don’t normally concluded my posts with “please share/retweet/reblog/etc.” requests, but if you feel better informed of and aware on the topic of light pollution, please forward this to your friends and neighbors.  Spreading knowledge about light pollution is the best strategy for eventually solving the problem!

Memories of Jupiter

Do you recall the largest planet of all?

Jupiter’s prime viewing season in 2017 has long past, but it should still be visible a little after sunset if you want to get a final glimpse of it this year in the evening sky.

Back in June, when Jupiter was high in the sky, I embarked to sketch the planet a few times, intermingled with on different nights opposite my digital photography of it.  Sketching at the telescope is an art for which I am barely a novice, but I am taking steps to improve my drawing skills in hopes of better future drawings for Jupiter, the Moon, and Mars.

I did mentioned in an earlier blog post or comment that I would post my sketches.  So better late than never, for better or worse, here they are, further below.  Note that I list the eyepiece filters used.  An objective I had this year was to determine which filters are best for seeing Jupiter’s details.  In my final sessions, as I was getting more comfortable making out the planet’s finer details, I decided to test each of my filters so that knew for years to come which filters will help my observations.

It is entirely possible that my filter opinions are just that, and yours may be different.  But if you are inclined to observe Jupiter someday at the telescope, here is my little guide on which filters I prefer.  The numbers, in case you are unfamiliar, as the standard Wratten numbers to denote filter color or type.

  • #12 Yellow – Very good, great band contrast
  • #23 Orange – Very good, can see band contrast
  • #25 Red – Bad, can only see the primary bands a little
  • #58 Green – Good-to-ok for band contrast
  • #80A Blue – N/A, filter was dirty, needed to clean
  • #80A Medium Blue – So-so (maybe results would have been better if Jupiter was higher in the sky?)
  • #96 Neutral – Very good, a little less bright but can see bands easily
  • Mars filter – Good, nice contrast and, in particular, the Great Red Spot really popped out

So I recommend #12 Yellow, #23 Orange, #96 Neutral, and Mars.  I have to recheck my #80A Blue filters next year.

And now, onto the Jupiter sketches…

Jupiter on June 1st, 2017.

Jupiter on June 2nd, 2017.

Jupiter on June 10th, 2017.

Jupiter on June 27th, 2017.

Constellations III: Of the Summer Triangle

Click to see the full-sized hi-res image!

A few days after I searched for Pluto, I chose to forgo my telescopes for one clear evening and play with my digital camera.  The Summer Triangle is straight up in the evening sky right now for several hours after sunset.  As Jack Horkheimer used to say, “Keep looking up.”  This time, take his advice literally and you will see the magnificent asterism defined by the stars Altair, Deneb, and Vega.

This image was taken in a similar fashion to my prior wide-field constellation pictures, like Leo, where I took dozens of light, dark, and bias frames and then created a composite in DeepSkyStacker.  For this new image, though, I went a step further.  I have been searching for a way to accentuate the stars based on their brightness, short of manually blowing them up.  I believe I have uncovered a technique to get the desired effect.  You can easily make out the three main stars along with other stars/patterns in descending order from their apparent magnitudes.

I must admit that I was mildly shocked at how many stars are shown.  Are those really stars, or image noise?  As the images were taken straight up, to the darkest part of the sky, it seemed plausible.  Also, the Milky Way runs right through the Summer Triangle.  You cannot see the Milky Way in my picture, as I don’t think it is possible to capture in my light-polluted area without longer exposures and an equatorial mount.

In checking as many detailed online star charts as seemed reasonable, I do believe those dots are all stars!

Remember that an asterism is a pattern of stars, versus a constellation, which is a generally accepted “official” pattern.  The Summer Triangle is an asterism (a triangle, duh) but it has several constellations in and around it.  How many constellations can you see and name in this picture?